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Fracture & Trauma Research

The Reno Orthopedic Fracture Care & Trauma team has consistently conducted research studies that investigate methods for optimizing patient care.

The Reno Orthopedic Clinic is the distinct leader in northern Nevada for conducting and publishing orthopedic research dedicated to orthopedic disorders. Annually the team at The Center for Fracture Care & Trauma Care presents their scientific findings at national orthopedic conferences and/or publishes the findings in peer-reviewed journals. This firm commitment to the future development of orthopedic science results in an orthopedic practice that offers state-of-the-art, evidence-based, best-practice orthopedic care for our fracture patients.

Our Trauma physicians have over 100 peer reviewed publications. The following research studies have been published in professional journals or textbooks:

Mellema, JJ, Doornberg, JN, Molenaars, RJ, Ring, D, Kloen, P; Traumaplatform Study Collaborative & Science of Variation Group. Interobserver reliability of the Schatzker and Luo classification systems for tibial plateau fractures. Injury. 2016 Jan 2. pii: S0020-1383(15)00843-8.

Janssen, SJ, Teunis, T, Guitton, TG, Ring, D; Science of Variation Group. Do Surgeons Treat Their Patients Like They Would Treat Themselves? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Nov;473(11):3564-72.

Walker, JA, Althausen, PL. Clinical Outcomes Following Operative Treatment of Flail Chest Injuries. Mckee, MD, Schemitsch, EH. Injuries to the Chest Wall. New York, Springer. 2015. Pages 119-130.

Althausen, PL. Invited commentary related to: A cost analysis of internal fixation versus nonoperative treatment in adult midshaft clavicle fractures using multiple randomized controlled trials. J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Apr;29(4):180-1.

Hill, AD, Catapano, JS, Surina, JB, Lu, M, & Althausen, PL. Clinical and Economic Impact of Duplicated Radiographic Studies in Trauma Patients Transferred to a Regional Trauma Center. J Orthop Trauma, 2015 Jul;29(7):e214-8.

Mellema, JJ, Doornberg, JN, Guitton, TG,  Ring, D; Science of Variation Group. Biomechanical studies: science (f) or common sense? Injury. 2014 Dec;45(12):2035-9.

Althausen, PL, Coll, D, Gurnea, TP, Anderson, S, Shields, T, Lu, M. Clinical and Economic Impact of Generic 7.3mm Cannulated Screw Use at a Level II Trauma Center. Am J Orthop. 2014 Sep;43(9):405-10.

Fowler TT, Taylor BC, Bellino MJ, Althausen PL. Surgical Treatment of Flail Chest and Rib Fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2014 Dec;22(12):751-760.

Hill, AD, Catapano, JS, Surina, JB, Lu, M, Althausen, PL. Clinical and Economic Impact of Duplicated Radiographic Studies in Trauma Patients Transferred to a Regional Trauma Center. Accepted  to J Orthop Trauma,  November  2014.

Tosti R, Ilyas AM, Mellema JJ, Guitton TG, Ring D; Science of Variation Group Interobserver Variability in the Treatment of Little Finger Metacarpal Neck Fractures. J Hand Surg Am. 2014 Jul 14.

Bruinsma WE, Guitton T, Ring D; Science of Variation Group. Radiographic loss of contact between radial head fracture fragments is moderately reliable. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Jul;472(7):2113-9

Althausen PL. Invited Commentary related to: The Prevalence and Costs of Defensive Medicine Among Orthopaedic Trauma Surgeons: A National Survey Study. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Mar 19.

OʼMara TJ, Hill AD, Althausen PL. Hospital Support. J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Jul;28(7 Supp):S47-49.

Althausen, PL. Trauma Program Development, J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Jul;28(7 Suppl):S42-6.

Althausen, PL, Bray, TJ, Hill, AD. Reno Orthopaedic Trauma Fellowship Business Curriculum. J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Jul;28(7 Suppl):S3-11.

Kauk, J, Hill, AD, Althausen, PL. Healthcare Fundamentals. J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Jul;28(7 Suppl):S25-41.

Althausen, PL, Hill, AD, Mead, L. Hospital Fundamentals. J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Jul;28(7 Suppl):S18-24.

Althausen, PL, Mead, L. Practice Management. J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Jul;28(7 Suppl):S12-17.

Bray, TJ, Althausen, PL. Introduction. J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Jul;28(7 Suppl):S1-2.

Althausen, PL, Neiman, R. On Call Contracts and Stipends. Hak, DJ, Ipaktchi, KR, Morgan, SJ. Orthopedic Trauma Call for the Attending Surgeon. Thorofare, NJ, SLACK Incorportated 2013: 9-15

Hill A, Althausen PL, O’Mara TJ, Bray TJ. Why veteran orthopaedic trauma surgeons are being fired and what we can do about it? J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Jun;27(6):355-62.

Van Kollenburg, Vrahas, MS, Smith, RM, Guitton, TG, Ring, D, Science of Variation Group. Diagnosis of Union of Distal Tibia Fractures: accuracy and Interobserver Reliability. Injury, 2013 Aug;44(8):1073-5.

Althausen PL, Lu M, Thomas KC, Shannon SF, Biagi BN, Boyden EM. Implant Standardization for Hemiarthroplasty: Implementation of a Pricing Matrix System at a Level II Community Based Trauma System. J Arthroplasty. 2014 Apr;29(4):781-5.

Althausen PL, Kauk JR, Shannon S, Lu M, O’Mara TJ, Bray TJ. Operating Room Efficiency: Benefits of an Orthopaedic Traumatologist at a Level II Trauma Center. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Jul 28.

Althausen PL, Davis L, Boyden EM, O’Mara TJ, Uppal R, Bray TJ. Financial impact of a dedicated orthopaedic traumatologist on a private group practice. J Orthop Trauma. 2010 Jun;24(6):350-4.

Ziran, B, Bray, TJ, Kane, SM, O’Mara, T, Althausen, PL. Delivery of Orthopaedic Trauma Care. Schmidt, AH, Teague, DC. Orthopaedic Knowledge Update: Trauma 4. AAOS, September 2010.

Althausen PL, Shannon S, Watts C, Thomas K, Bain MA, Coll D, Oʼmara TJ, Bray TJ. Early Surgical Stabilization of Flail Chest With Locked Plate Fixation. J Orthop Trauma. 2011 Nov;25(11):641-647.

Althausen, PL. Building a successful trauma practice in a community setting. J Orthop Trauma. 2011 Dec;25 Suppl:S113-7.

Althausen PL, Shannon S, Lu M, Oʼmara TJ, Bray TJ. Clinical and Financial Comparison of Operative and Non-Operative Treatment of Displaced Clavicle Fractures. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013 May;22(5):608-11.

Althausen PL. Factors influencing revenue from management of pelvis and acetabulum fractures: Invited Commentary. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 May;27(5):274.

Althausen PL. Payer Status and Increased Distance Traveled for Fracture Care in a Rural state:Invited Commentary. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Feb;27(2):118-9.

Althausen PL, Shannon S, Coll D, Cvitash M, Owens B, Lu M, Oʼmara TJ, Bray TJ. Impact of Hospital Employed Physician Assistants on a Level II, Community-based Orthopaedic Trauma System. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Apr;27(4):e87-91

Althausen, PL, Althausen, AF, Jennings, LC, Mankin, HJ: Prognostic factors and treatment of osseous metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma. Cancer, 1997;80(6): 1103-1110.

Althausen, PL, Gupta, MC, Benson, DR, Jones, DA. The Use of Neostigmine to Treat Postoperative Illeus in Orthopaedic Spinal Patients. Journal of Spinal Disorders, 2001;14(6):541-5.

Bains, R, Althausen, PL, Gitlin, GG, Gupta, MC, Benson DR. The Role of Acute Decompression and Restoration of Spinal Alignment in the Prevention of Post Traumatic Syringomyelia: Case Report and Review of Recent Literature. Spine, 2001; 26(17): 399-402.

Althausen, PL, Hak, DK. Lower Extremity Traction Pins: Indications, Technique, and Complications. American Journal of Orthopaedics, 2002;31(1):43-47.

Althausen, PL, Schneider, PD, Bold, RJ, Gupta, MC, Goodnight, JE, Khatri, VP. Multimodality Management of a Giant Cell Tumor Arising from the Proximal Sacrum. Spine, 2002; 27(15):E361-65.

Althausen, PL, Neiman, R, Olson, SA, Finkemeier, CF. Incision Placement in Intramedullary Tibial Nailing: An Anatomic Study.  Journal Orthopaedic Trauma, 2002; 16(10):687-90.

Christensen, CP, Althausen, PL, Mittleman, MA, Lee, JA, McCarthy, JC. The Nonarthritic Hip Score: Reliable and Validated. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 2003; 406:75-83. 2002.

Salamon, ML, Althausen, PL, Gupta, MC, Laubach, J. The Effects of BMP-7 in a Rat Posterolateral Intertranseverse Process Fusion Model.  Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, 2003;16(1):90-95.

Christensen, CP, McCarthy, JC, Mittleman, MA, Althausen, PL, Lee, JA. Outcomes. In McCarthy, JC, (Ed.) Early Hip Disorders: Advances in Detection and Minimally Invasive Management. New York, Springer-Verlag, 2003:195-200.

Althausen, PL, Lee, MA, Finkemeier, CG, Rodrigo, JJ, Meehan, JP. Operative Stabilization of Supracondylar Femur Fractures Above Total Knee Arthroplasty: a comparison of four treatment methods.  Journal of Arthroplasty, 2003;18(7):834-9.

Althausen, PL, Lee, MA, Finkemeier, CG. Scapulothoracic Dissociation: Diagnosis and Treatment. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 2003;416:237-244.

Althausen, PL, Szabo, RM. Coverage of Distal Radius Internal Fixation and Wrist Fusion Devices with AlloDerm.  Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery, 2004;8(4):266-268.

Moehring, D, Althausen, PL, Lindholm, SR. Technique for Removal of Cannulated Screws. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2004;19:280-281.

Semenov, S, Kellam, J, Althausen, P, Williams, T, Abubakar, A, Bulyshev, A, Sizov, Y. Microwave tomography for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues: feasibility assessment. Phys. Med. Biol, 2007; 52: 5705-5719, 2007.

Bray, TJ, Althausen, PL, O’Mara, T. Growth and Development of the Northern Nevada Orthopaedic Trauma System (NOTP) 1994-2007. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Apr; 90(4):909-14..

Large TM, Kellam JF, Bosse MJ, Sims SH, Althausen PL, Masonis JL. Locked plating of supracondylar periprosthetic femur fractures. J Arthroplasty. 2008 Sep;23(6 Suppl 1):115-20. Epub 2008 Jul 9.

Harris AM, Althausen P, Kellam JF, Bosse MJ. Simultaneous anterior and posterior approaches for complex acetabular fractures. J Ortho Trauma.2008 Aug;22(7):494-7.

Althausen, PL, Coll, D, Cvitash, M, Herak, A, O’Mara, TJ, Bray, TJ. Economic Viability of a Community-Based Level-II Orthopaedic Trauma System. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91:227-235.

Harris, AM, Althausen, PL, Kellam, J, Bosse, MJ, Castillo, R, and The Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP) Study Group. Complications Following Limb-Threatening Lower Extremity Trauma. J Ortho Trauma 2009 Jan;23(1):1-7.

Hak DJ, Althausen PL, Hazelwood SJ. Locked plate fixation of osteoporotic humeral shaft fractures: are two locking screws per segment enough? J Orthop Trauma. 2010 Apr;24(4):207-11.

Walker, J, Pagnotto, M, Trousdale, R Sierra, R. Preliminary Pain and Function after Labral Reconstruction During Femoroacetabular Impingement Surgery. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. August 2012

Pagnotto, M, Boone, G, Walker, J, Trousdale, R, Sierra, R. Radiographic Features Associated with Differing Impinging Hip Morphologies with Special Attention to “Coxa Profunda”. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. August 2012; E-published ahead of print.

C Camp,C,  Bryan, A,  Walker, J,  R Trousdale, R. Surgical Technique for Symmetric Patellar Resurfacing During Total Knee Arthroplasty. Journal of Knee Surgery. June 2012; Provisionally Accepted with Revisions.

Firoozabadi R, O’Mara TJ, Swenson A, Agel J, Beck JD, Routt M. Risk factors for the development of heterotopic ossification after acetabular fracture fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Jun 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Neuhaus V, Bot AG, Guitton TG, Ring DC; Science of Variation Group. *Scapula fractures: interobserver reliability of classification and treatment. J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Mar; 28(3): 124-129.

Hageman MG, Guitton TG, Ring D; Science of Variation Group. *How surgeons make decisions when the evidence is inconclusive. J Hand Surg Am. 2013 Jun; 38(6): 1202-8.

Kesson AM, Bellemore MC, O’Mara TJ, Ellis EH, Sorrell TC. Scedosporium prolificans osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent child treated with a novel agent, hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine), in combination with terbinafine and voriconazole: a case report. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 May 1; 48(9): 1257-61.

Barei DP, O’Mara TJ, Taitsman LA, Dunbar RP, Nork SE. Frequency and fracture morphology of the posteromedial fragment in bicondylar tibial plateau fracture patterns. J Orthop Trauma. 2008 Mar; 22(3): 176-82.

O’Mara TJ, Barei DP, Taitsman LA, Vallier H, Chapman JR. Pertrochanteric femur fracture at the proximal end of a retrograde femoral nail – a case report. Injury Extra. 2005; 36: 271-276.

Bray, TJ.; Chapman, M.W.; Casey, J.: Treatment of Lower Extremity Non-unions with Electrical Stimulation and Weightbearing – A Prospective Study. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Orthopaedic Transactions. Published by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 8, No. 3, p.384. 1984

Bray, TJ, Chapman, MW. Percutaneous pinning of intracapsular hip fractures. Chapter VI, Fracture of the Hip. In American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Instructional Course Lectures, John A. Murray (ed.), C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis. Vol. XXXIII, 6:168-179. 1984

Bray, T J, McCarroll, J. Preiser’s disease revisited. Journal of Hand Surgery, 9(5):730-732. September. 1984

Bray, TJ, Swafford, A, Brown, R. Bilateral fracture of the hook of the hamate: A case report. The Journal of Trauma, 25(2):174-175, 1985.

Bray, TJ, Chapman, M. The use of Ender Nail for extracapsular fractures about the hip. Fractures of the Hip, Chapter l8, Marvin Meyers (ed.), Yearbook Medical Publishers. Chicago, pp. 205-226. 1985

Bray, TJ, Szabo, R, Yen, L, Timmerman, L, Madison,  M. Cost of orthopaedic injuries sustained in motorcycle accidents. JAMA. 254(17):2452-2453. 1985

Grob, E, Simpson, L, Weber, B, Bray, TJ. Operative treatment of displaced talus fractures. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 199:88-96. October. 1985.

Gylling, S, Ward, E, Holcroft, W, Bray, TJ, Chapman, M. Immediate external fixation of unstable pelvic fractures. American Journal of Surgery. 150:721-724, December. 1985

Bray, TJ, Shifflett, MW, Timmerman, L, Chapman, MW: Grosse-Kempf Locking Nail in the Treatment of Unstable Complex Femur Fractures. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Orthopaedic Transactions. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 10, No. 3, p.482. 1986

Bray, T J, Esser, M, Fulkerson, L. Osteotomy of the trochanter in open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, June l987. Vol. 69-A, No. 5, pp. 711-717. 1987

Shifflett, M, Bray, TJ. Preventing complications of interlocked nailing in intramedullary fixation of the femur. Complications in Orthopaedics. Sept./Oct., Vol. 2, No. 5. 1987

Bray, TJ. Soft tissue techniques in the management of open ankle fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 20-28. October. 1987

Bray, T J. Indications for locked intramedullary nailing. Techniques in Orthopaedics. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 9-13. October. 1988

Bray, T J; Smith-Hoefer; Hooper, A.; Timmerman, L.: The displaced femoral neck fracture. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. Vol. 230, pp. 127-140. May. 1988

Spiegel, J, Bray, TJ, Chapman, MW,  Swanson, T.: The Lottes Nail vs. AO External Fixation in Open Tibia Fractures. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Orthopaedic Transactions. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 13, No. 1, p.53. 1988

Goulet, J, Bray, TJ, Timmerman, L, Benson, D, Bargar, W. Intraoperative autologous blood transfusion in orthopaedic patients. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 71A, pp. 3., 1989.

Goulet, J, Bray, TJ. Complex Acetabular Fractures. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. No. 240. pp. 9. March. 1989.

Bray, TJ, Endicott, M,  Capra, SE. Treatment of Open Ankle Fractures: Immediate Internal Fixation Versus Closed Immobilization and Delayed Fixation. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. No. 240, pp. 47. March. 1989

Leighton, RK, Waddell, JP, Simpson, L, Chapman, MW, Bray, TJ, Martin, RB, Sharkey, NA.: Anterior Approach and Stabilization of the Disrupted Sacroiliac Joint. Orthopaedic Transactions. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 13, No. 1, p.53. 1989

Matta, JM, Bray, TJ. Pelvis and Acetabulum: Trauma. Lower Extremity Task Force. Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 3 . American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 38:477-493. January. 1990

White, R, Bray, TJ, Goulet, J, Daschbach, M, McGahan, J,  Hartling, R. Deep Vein Thrombosis – Following Fractures of the Pelvis: Assessment Using Serial Duplex Ultrasound Screening. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 72-A, No. 4. Pgs 495-500. April. 1990

Bray, TJ. One Leg Shorter Thank the Other – No Longer a Problem. New Procedures Make Leg Length Equalization a Safe, Comfortable Treatment Option at the Reno Orthopaedic Clinic. Journal of Modern Health. July. 1990.

Leighton, RK, Waddell, JP, Bray,  TJ, Chapman, MW, Simpson, LA, Martin, RB, and Sharkey, NA. Biomechanical Testing of New and Old Fixation Devices for Vertical Shear Fractures of the Pelvis. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. Vol. 5 No. 3 pp 313-317. 1991

Swanson, T, Spiegel, J, Sutherland, T, Bray, TJ, Chapman, MW.: A Prospective, Comparative Study of the Lottes Nail Versus External Fixation in 100 Open Tibia Fractures. Orthopaedic Transactions. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 14, No.3, p. 716. 1991

Swanson, T, Spiegel, J, Sutherland, T, Bray, TJ, Chapman, MW.: A Prospective, Comparative Study of the Lottes Nail Versus External Fixation in 100 Open Tibia Fractures. Orthopaedic Transactions. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 15, No.1, p. 16. 1991

Swanson, TV, Bray, TJ, Holmes, GB. Fractures of the Talar Neck. A Mechanical Study of Fixation. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Vol. 74-A, No. 4, pp 544-551. April. 1992

Duwelius, PJ, Van Allen, M, Bray, TJ, Nelson, D. Computed Tomography-Guided Fixation of Unstable Posterior Pelvic Ring Disruptions. Journal of Orthopaedic trauma. Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 420-426. Raven Press, Ltd., New York. 1992

Chapman, ME, Duwelius, PJ.; Bray, TJ, Gordon, EJ. Closed Intramedullary Femoral Osteotomy: Shortening and Derotation Procedures. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. No. 287. Pages 245-251. 1993

Bray, TJ.: Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation – Clinical Decision Making. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, No. 339, pp 20-31. June. 1997

Dobbs, RE, Bray, TJ, Starich, GH. Flexion/Extension Roentograms of the Cervical Spine Should be Eliminated from the Standard protocol for Trauma Patients. Journal of Investigative Medicine. Vol. 46, No. 1 January 1998.

Bosse, MJ, Henley, B, Bray,TJ,  Vrahas, M.: Access to Emergent Musculoskeletal Care: Resuscitating Orthopaedic Emergency-Department Coverage. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. Vol. 88-A No.6. June. 2006

Ziran, B,  Bray, TJ.: How to Negotiate with Your Hospital. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. Vol. 26, No. 9. S14-S17. September. 2012.

Kauk, JR,  Bray, TJ. Orthopaedist-Hospital Alignment in a Community Setting. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. Vol.471, No. 6. June. 2013.

Bray, TJ. Orthopaedic Traumatology – More than Just Surgery. Clinical News and Views. AAOS Now. June 2013.